Who Developed The Theory Of Political Economy – John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was a prominent philosopher, economist, politician and high official in the East India Company. A controversial figure in 19th century Britain, he proposed the use of traditional economic theory, philosophical thought and public awareness in making political decisions and laws. Many of his views, including those on women’s rights and slavery, were liberal for the day.
Mill combined economics and philosophy. He believed in a moral theory called utilitarianism – that actions that make people happy are right, and actions that cause suffering are wrong. It is best known among economists as a work from 1848.
Who Developed The Theory Of Political Economy
John Stuart Mill was born in London in 1806, as the eldest son of the historian, economist and philosopher James Mill. He grew up in a strict household under a powerful father and had to study history, Greek, Latin, mathematics and economic theory from an early age.
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Much of John Stuart Mill’s beliefs, thoughts, and influential works can be attributed to his upbringing and the teachings of James Mill. In 1808, his father met the great political theorist Jeremy Bentham and together they formed a political group that embraced philosophical and practical radicalism, dedicated to “the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.” During this time, the young Mill learned the economic theory, political thought, and social beliefs that would shape his future work.
In fact, it was this upbringing that gave him the foundation and then led to a mental breakdown – and later a gradual development. Mill suffered from long periods of grief, depression and even suicidal thoughts due to his father’s bigotry and the radical system he grew up with. A mental breakdown forces him to question the principles he previously accepted as truth. Through this very thought, he began to change the ideology of using Bentham to improve it, taking the revised theory as his belief system.
Mill spent most of his working life with the East India Company: he arrived at the age of 16 and worked there for 38 years. During 1865–68 he was a Member of Parliament (MP), representing the City of Westminster.
John Stuart Mill is considered one of Britain’s foremost thinkers on political discourse, including modern science, economics, ethics, metaphysics, social and political philosophy, and other collections.
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He used his many essays, essays, and books to compare the legal status of women at the time to that of slaves, to promote due diligence as a mathematical practice, and to guide the principle of harm—ra’ the fact that political power should. it should only be used against a member of the group if this power is used to prevent harm to that member.
Although he was an ardent admirer of liberty and individual rights, as an economist Mill was not a firm believer in laissez-faire: he favored taxes and government controls, such as workplace regulations and restrictions on employees’ working hours. His later writings show that there was a shift away from traditional economic beliefs about the free market and capitalism and socialism, or at least a mixed economy.
Building on the theories of early economists David Rickard and Adam Smith, Mills helped develop such economic concepts as opportunity cost, economies of scale, and the comparative advantage of trade.
(1848), who combined the fields of philosophy and economics and argued that population limits and reduced economic growth would be good for the environment and increase public goods.
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(1863), which describes Bentham’s original philosophy, using it as a moral framework – rejects the idea that it promotes a narrow view, and argues that it is ideal for the development of the community as a whole.
The utilitarian faith, “which accepts the utilitarian position of morality, or the highest theory of happiness, holds that actions are equal in proportion as they promote happiness, wrong when they produce the opposite of happiness.” Pleasure and painlessness; through misfortune, pain and misfortune.
The love of Milo’s life was Harriet Hardy Taylor. After twenty years of close friendship (during which she was married to another man), they married in 1851. An intelligent, liberal thinker and writer in her own right, Taylor was inspired by many of Mill’s works – he clearly acknowledges their influence.
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And maybe they edited or wrote some parts of it. Indeed, she helped direct Mill’s attention to the ideals of progress in which she was interested: socialism, women’s rights, independence, and a “utopian” view of human inequality.
(19th century terminology, equivalent to modern “macroeconomics”); first published in 1848, it went through several editions as it developed and refined its ideas. For Milo, economics is related to social and political philosophy: wealth is the ultimate goal of work, but the distribution of wealth is determined by the decisions and will of real people (albeit highly educated). As a result, human laws and institutions can and should determine how wealth is distributed.
Mill believed in the concept of socialism, in which workers’ cooperatives run the economy. But he also believed in free trade, competition and individual initiative. Governments are responsible for taking care of these things, preventing corruption, caring for the poor and providing education for the youth.
John Stuart Mill was a politician and philosopher, economist and business executive who left a lasting impression as a liberal thinker – an advocate of individual rights and the pursuit of happiness – and a moral theorist. Essentially, Mill believed that economic theory and philosophy, along with public awareness, were needed in politics to make the best decisions for the good of the people. Many of his books, including
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Made him one of the most important – if somewhat controversial – figures in 19th century British politics and economics.
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Born in England in 1772, one of 17 children, David Ricardo began working with his father as a stockbroker at the age of 14. His father fired him at the age of 21, but he was married because he was not religious. His wealth is the result of his success in the business he started and which he works in the government fund. He retired at the age of 41 after making around £1 million speculating on the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo.
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After his retirement, Ricardo bought a seat in Parliament for £4,000 and became a Member of Parliament. Influenced by Adam Smith, Ricardo joined the great thinkers of the time, such as James Mill, Jeremy Bentham and Thomas Malthus.
It is the theory of advantage, which suggests that countries can benefit from international trade by specializing in the production of goods that they have limited capacity to produce, even if they do not have a perfect ‘ida in producing something. polite. .
For example, trade between China and the UK will benefit from China specializing in chemicals and tea and from the UK focusing on machinery. Ricardo closely linked the benefits of free trade with the benefits of protectionist policies. Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage caused controversy and criticism that is still debated today.
Ricardo’s most famous contribution to economics is the theory of valuable labor. The labor theory of value suggests that the value of a good can be measured by the labor it took to produce it. The theory says that money should not be based on the compensation paid for labor, but on the total cost of production.
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An example of this theory is, if it takes two hours to make a table and one hour to make a chair, the table has two chairs, no matter how many there are.
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