The Belt And Road Initiative – Although the Chinese government designed the Belt and Road Initiative from an economic perspective, Australia, Japan and the United States have been critical of it. As a geostrategic link between Asia and Europe, Turkey has already reflected its commercial interests in the Belt and Road Initiative and the Middle Corridor plan. Initiative (MCI) as a means to achieve regional market connectivity and trade cooperation. Taking into account the above, this survey aims to explain whether the Belt and Road Initiative takes into account Turkey’s Asia policy and to what extent MCI can complement the Belt and Road Initiative. In addition, this study analyzes the existing scale of Sino-Turkish trade and proposes a series of opportunities provided by the Belt and Road Initiative and MCI. However, these opportunities are faced with challenges such as cross-regional instability and socio-economic upheaval. To realize commercial interests in cross-initiative cooperation and connectivity, China and Turkey must play a leading role in developing policy coordination and establishing cultural ties among the Belt and Road/MCI community. Therefore, from an operational perspective, Turkey will have a significant impact on Asian affairs, economics, and strategy.
China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative has attracted regional and global attention since it was proposed in 2013. Although China mainly proposes the Belt and Road Initiative from an economic perspective, the United States, Japan, Australia and India view the Belt and Road Initiative from a strategic perspective.
The Belt And Road Initiative
However, Turkey continues to maintain a cautious policy regarding the nature and characteristics of the Belt and Road Initiative. It is true that Ankara, as a link between Asia and Europe, on the one hand shows interest in China’s initiative for rational reasons, and on the other hand has its own initiative, often referred to as the “Middle Corridor” – although there are overlaps Joining the Belt and Road Initiative in terms of infrastructure has the potential to become a bridge between Turkey, the South Caucasus, Central Asia and China.
Belt And Road Initiative: Prospects And Challenges In Southeast Asia
Furthermore, as part of its foreign policy in Asia, Turkey designed the Middle Corridor Initiative (MCI) as a means and ends to achieve commercial, military and strategic objectives in a regionally aligned geopolitical environment.
For example, the United States is gradually rebalancing its Middle East policy and seems to be avoiding a military confrontation with Russia and giving “tacit approval” to Turkey’s military operations in northern Syria. In Central Asia, South Asia, the Pacific, and Northeast Asia, the United States maintains a military presence and strengthens defense cooperation with India, Japan, and Australia.
It needs to be emphasized that under the leadership of the Trump administration, China is regarded as a “strategic competitor” and “economic competitor” that must be realistically attacked.
Not surprisingly, the so-called “trade war” between China and the United States not only affects bilateral relations (trade), but also has a negative impact on regional countries such as Pakistan and India.
The Dangers Of The Belt And Road Initiative
China also behaves rationally. Under President Xi Jinping, Beijing is implementing regional peace and economic integration policies proposed in the Belt and Road Initiative and its supporting institutional arrangements, such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the Silk Road Fund (SRF). Given the complexity of regional geopolitics, the Chinese Communist Party under Xi Jinping appears to have taken note of U.S. plans to encircle China militarily and strategically.
Although the Chinese government has not officially adopted a confrontational approach to Washington in terms of military strategy, it has still adopted the same approach when it comes to the issue of high tariffs caused by the trade war. In addition, Beijing also maintains good trade relations with Japan, South Korea, Turkmenistan and India. On the one hand, it does not allow American companies to completely control the regional market, and on the other hand, it develops the Chinese economy. Interdependence. . Cooperation with these important countries will not harm China’s commercial and strategic interests.
The so-called “trade war” between China and the United States not only affects bilateral relations (trade), but also has a negative impact on regional countries such as Pakistan and India.
Importantly, China has recently sought to improve its military, strategic and economic relations with Turkey. To achieve this goal, the Belt and Road Initiative is designed as a mutually beneficial cooperation between two countries that have traditionally pursued very complex foreign policies – as this article explains in detail. But now, both China and Turkey have pledged to consolidate “strategic cooperation” through mutually agreed measures to dispel existing doubts, particularly in the fight against terrorism and ethnic separatism. Historically and nationally, Ankara has a different view of the Uyghur Muslim minority in the Xinjiang autonomous region that the Chinese government seeks to integrate.
International Flows In The Belt And Road Initiative Context: Business, People, History And Geography
Therefore, this survey aims to explain whether the Belt and Road Initiative takes into account Turkey’s Asia policy, and to what extent Ankara and Beijing are willing to cooperate within the Belt and Road framework. To explain this last point, this survey centers around Turkey’s Middle Corridor Initiative, emphasizing its trade and connectivity role compared to the Belt and Road Initiative. The second goal is to understand whether the Belt and Road Initiative and MCI can cooperate to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results. Finally, the overall purpose of this survey is to situate the Belt and Road Initiative and, to a certain extent, “multilateral initiatives” in the formulation of Turkey’s Asia policy in order to analyze Turkey’s future role in Asian affairs. However, before these issues are empirically addressed, this chapter will provide the historical background of Sino-Turkish relations.
The regions surrounding modern Turkey and China were closely linked commercially and culturally by the ancient Silk Road, which since the 2nd century had connected not only East and West Asia, but also Asia, Europe, and Africa.
Therefore, from ancient times, the Middle Ages to the early modern period, Turks traded with other countries, especially China, through the ancient Silk Road. With the emergence of nation-state ideas in Europe after the French Revolution and in Asia after the end of colonialism, imperial state systems such as the Ottoman Empire transformed into the Westphalian polity based on territory, state, and nation. sovereignty. Integrity and economic autonomy.
Therefore, the modern Republic of Turkey, established in 1923, recognized the characteristics of a nation-state and began a new chapter in determining and executing domestic and foreign policies.
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In terms of external relations, Turkey, led by Ataturk, maintains good relations with its Eurasian neighbors. In fact, they approached Chinese leaders in 1934 to restore diplomatic relations that had been interrupted by political changes in Turkey and China after World War I.
However, in the following years, China’s domestic politics underwent revolutionary changes. Due to the uncertainty of China’s political authority, China was unable to establish formal relations with Istanbul, which tilted towards the United States after World War II. More importantly, in 1949 it became the North Atlantic Founding member of NATO.
The ensuing Cold War based on ideological geopolitics (i.e. capitalism versus communism) prevented Turkey and China from diplomatic engagement with each other in the 1950s and 1960s.
Economically, long before the “One Belt, One Road” initiative was proposed in 2013, bilateral trade between China and Turkey has always been a core component of the strategic partnership.
Environmental Challenges For The Belt And Road Initiative
Thus, in the same year, Turkey established diplomatic relations with China, although during the 1970s the level of bilateral contacts remained low due to mutual distrust, bureaucratic obstacles, Istanbul’s pro-US/NATO stance, and China’s closed national policy. . However, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China began to “open” to Western countries, especially the United States, and American insurance companies and banks showed great interest in investing in Shenzhen, China.
Not surprisingly, in the 1980s, China not only began to expand its trade with the United States and Europe, but also began to develop regional markets for export consumption. Therefore, in context, Turkey-China bilateral relations have improved in diplomatic, commercial and military aspects, as discussed below:
Since the deputy commander-in-chief of the Turkish Armed Forces paid a state visit to Turkey in 1983, China-Turkish military cooperation has begun to develop rapidly. Afterwards, Chinese Chief of Staff Yang Dezhi visited Turkey in October 1985, and Turkish Chief of General Staff Nejdet Ulug visited the People’s Republic of China in November 1986. In November 1992, Chinese Defense Minister General Qin Jiwei led a military delegation to visit Turkey…[Also] in April 1993, Turkish Chief of General Staff General Gurez and Defense Minister Nevzat Ayaz visited China and Reach consensus on an agreement. In return, China’s Chief of General Staff Zhang Wannian visited Türkiye in 1995.17
As mentioned above, Sino-Turkish relations are achieving stability, although the scale remains limited and is mainly limited to military exchanges and security cooperation because of similarities between Beijing and Istanbul in terms of terrorism and ethnic separatism. China has long viewed Xinjiang’s Uighurs from a security perspective because they belong to the Turkic ethnic group and have cross-cultural ties with Turkish society. Uyghurs are generally associated with the ethnic separatism and terrorist incidents that occurred in the autonomous region after September 11.
Building China’s Belt And Road Initiative Bit By Bit
Turkey, as a country and a society, has traditionally viewed China’s Muslim minorities from the perspective of religious civilization.
This difference in perspective harms the development of statistical and social relations between the two countries and their societies.
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