Sustainability In The Urban Environment – In 2018, 55% of the world’s population lived in cities. This number is expected to rise to two-thirds of the world’s population by 2050. There is no doubt that cities play an important economic role: around 80% of global GDP is generated in cities. Surprisingly, cities occupy only 3% of the Earth’s surface, but account for 60–80% of energy consumption and at least 70% of carbon emissions [1]. The development of the city is an issue that will concern all citizens, even if they do not live in the city. Inequality is a major concern in cities as the number of people living in slums continues to rise. This urban inequality can lead to unrest and insecurity, pollution, reduced worker productivity, all of which harm the economy and disrupt more lives than in the immediate urban area [2]. As cities continue to grow, cities must consider practices that lead to sustainability. These practices can create professional and business opportunities, safe and affordable housing and, above all, develop resilient societies and economies. Some of the things cities can do are invest in public transport, create green public spaces and enable more participatory and inclusive urban planning and management [3].

As part of South Australia’s transition to a low-carbon economy, Adelaide aims to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. Becoming carbon neutral means having no net impact on the greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere To this end, Adelaide has a number of projects to reduce emissions from operational activities in the government area [4].

Sustainability In The Urban Environment

Sustainability In The Urban Environment

Another Adelaide endeavor is the development of green spaces. Apart from the aesthetic differences, these spaces bring several benefits; It has been proven that these spaces improve the health, well-being, safety and social aspects of people, and even boost the economy and biodiversity of the territory. Adelaide aims to plant 1,500 trees and increase vegetation by a further 100,000 square meters by 2020 [6].

Singapore Aims To Be The World’s Greenest City

An example of living architecture in Adelaide is the ‘green wall’ of one of the city council office buildings. The green area refreshes the courtyard and creates a cozy atmosphere for people to meet at lunchtime. Excess water is diverted through underground pipes to water the trees in the square, further increasing the sustainability of the city and providing another green area [7].

Australia is known as the driest inhabited continent on Earth. Adelaide has been considered a pioneer in the fight against this threat since the city passed a law in 2004 requiring all households to collect rainwater in a water tank. Municipal wastewater is also treated and reused for agricultural irrigation, a popular strategy in Australia. The extraction and recycling of water is called replacement [8].

Adelaide hopes to transition its city to renewable electricity. If the project is approved, approximately 75% of the city’s energy will come from wind power, with the remaining 25% from solar power. This electricity will power public buildings, electric vehicle charging points, barbecues in parks, water pumps, public lighting and traffic lights. In fact, the town hall is the first in South Australia to use 100% renewable electricity. This saves the Council approximately $300,000 in electricity bills and avoids approximately 760 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, which is the equivalent of taking 302 cars off the road each year [9].

One of the market solutions implemented by Adelaide is the Sustainability Incentive Plan. This scheme offers discounts for businesses, families, multi-storey buildings and car parks as a way of investing in community projects for a more sustainable future. The recipients of these bonuses play a role in the common goal of a carbon neutral city. This is a great way for the city to invest in sustainable technologies at the community level, as the city has made it clear that the allowances can be used for everything from workplace improvements to home improvements [10].

Next Generation Urban Planning: Enabling Sustainable Development At The Local Level Through Voluntary Local Reviews (vlrs)

Between 2007 and 2018, Adelaide managed to reduce its carbon emissions by 15%. During this period, the population increased by 33%, student enrollment by 37% and urban users by 43%. Sustainability does not have to come at the expense of economic growth; the gross regional product increased by 33% during this decade [11].

As Denmark aims to become independent from fossil fuels by 2050, Copenhagen aims to become the first carbon-neutral capital by 2025. In 2017, 10% of industrial workers had green jobs [12]. Copenhagen’s plan is to focus on developing existing industrial clusters or business areas that have a competitive advantage. The clusters outlined by the city of Copenhagen are the Cleantech, Healthtech and Creative clusters.

By becoming smart cities, companies in Copenhagen have access to decades of high-quality data and electronic records. This makes greater Copenhagen a priority laboratory for technologies to build, control and manage the data infrastructure of big cities to address the challenges of climate change and urbanization [13]. CLEAN is an initiative that aims to create a platform for knowledge exchange and cooperation between Danish and international companies, institutions, organizations and authorities worldwide. Through this collaboration, members can promote growth and employment, support entrepreneurs and raise awareness of Denmark’s cleantech strategies. As a core member of CLEAN City of Copenhagen:

Sustainability In The Urban Environment

The Copenhagen Health Cluster (CHC) is a way for companies, municipalities and regions to work together to develop digital health solutions for the future that can easily address healthcare challenges. This is particularly important due to Denmark’s aging population [16]. Copenhagen covers these areas of the Healthtech cluster:

Healthy Urban Environments

Alongside these ambitious projects, Copenhagen is home to Copenhill. Copenhill turns waste into energy for tens of thousands of homes and businesses. It also functions as an artificial slope for skiing and snowboarding all year round and is also one of the longest in the world. Visitors can also walk to the green area at the top [19].

Considered one of the greenest cities in the world, Copenhagen has many other achievements. More than two thirds of the hotels have an ecological certificate. The city’s vending machines return deposits when you insert a plastic can or cup, demonstrating the importance of recycling to the city. Many pizzerias, burger joints, hot dogs and craft beers use all organic ingredients, and Geranium is the only all-organic restaurant in the world with three Michelin stars. In addition to its green landscape, Denmark is considered one of the happiest places on the planet, and Copenhagen is one of the best places to live [20].

San Francisco’s greenhouse gas reduction goals follow a timeline: a 25% reduction in emissions from 1990 to 2017, 40% by 2025 and 80% by 2050. San Francisco has met its targets; in 2012, greenhouse gas emissions were 23% below 1990 levels, while the economy and population grew [21]. As a smart city, San Francisco has been able to use information and communication technologies to use resources more efficiently and intelligently, resulting in greater cost and energy savings, better performance of services and a better quality of life, and a reduction of the environmental footprint while supporting innovation and a low-carbon economy. These technologies not only reduced energy consumption, but also simplified waste management and expanded the city’s transportation system [22].

San Francisco is famous for its cable cars, which also has the largest fleet of electric streetcars in the United States. Muni’s historic streetcars run on clean, greenhouse gas-free electricity from the city’s hydroelectric system. In addition, San Francisco’s Transit-First programs have moved residents to sustainable modes of transportation for 50% of all trips, surpassing the 2018 goal. In 2015, non-electric transit buses, fire trucks and all other diesel vehicles in the city. switched to 100% renewable diesel fuel, reduced its greenhouse gas footprint by 56% and improved air quality in the area. Also, in 2016, San Francisco was the only US city to receive a grant from the US Department of Energy to further transform the fuel cell EV market [23].

Sustainable Cities For A Sustainable Japan

40% of the city’s carbon emissions come from cars and trucks. As part of San Francisco’s efforts to reduce carbon emissions, the San Francisco Department of the Environment is promoting the use of smart commuting, electric transportation and biofuels to help the city meet its reduction goals . One system is SFpark, operated by the San Francisco Metropolitan Transportation Authority (SFMTA). 30% of congestion in San Francisco is caused by driving to a parking lot. SFpark hopes to reduce that percentage by collecting and sharing real-time information about where parking is available so drivers can find open spaces and free up the roads. Another effort was ChargePoint, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles. A unique feature of ChargePoint is the ability to provide real-time status and track usage to generate reports to determine where additional chargers should be placed. San Francisco currently has 110 public electric vehicle charging stations, the most per capita of any city (13.5 charging stations per 100,000 residents) [24].

As part of the “0-50-100-Roots” climate action strategy, it is

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