Role Of Education In Economic Development Ppt – Education as Human Capital Competency Approach Education Implications for Program Evaluation Competency Approach Education Indicators Education Indicators Trends Education Policy Francesco Burchi Master HDFS

Harrod-Domar model (1948). The Solow model (1957). An extension of the Harrod-Domar model with input labor and technology. General features: growth depends on physical capital accumulation Weaknesses: what are residual factors? Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Role Of Education In Economic Development Ppt

Role Of Education In Economic Development Ppt

In addition to the physical resources of the economy, every society has intangible resources or human capital, which is mainly represented by labor. The first proponents of this concept were Theodore W. Schultz (1960), Gary S. Becker (1961). Schultz: growth rate > rate of physical capital accumulation. Reason: accumulation of human resources. Later, human capital was included in the growth model, for example Lucas and Romer. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Human Capital: Education And Health Development

5 What is human capital? Human capital is an endowment capital that depends on the investment of individual components; – includes health, nutrition, on-the-job training, and special skills to ensure that the person is employed by the company; – Training programs for adults, for example, agricultural extension services and practical skills needed in the workplace. – Formal education, years of study. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Micro unit of analysis. macro unit of worker analysis. economic system Micro goals. the macro goal of increasing individual productivity. economic growth = economic development = poverty reduction Human capital = factors of production added to the production function; Y = f (C) ; L; H…) where H= human capital Francesco Burchi Master HDFS

7 Empirical analysis (1) Although the concept of human capital includes many dimensions, most empirical studies based on this theory focus on one dimension, education. Education is usually measured by the variable “years of schooling”. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

8 Empirical analysis (2) Psacharopoulos (1971) uses HC theory with the following assumptions. 1. DF is measured only by education 2. Educational capital is measured only by labor. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Economic Efficiency: Definition And Examples

9 Empirical analysis (3) Psacharopoulos proposes two different models of growth. Schultz’s model: capital = physical capital + human capital. Investments in MS are divided into 3 levels of primary, secondary and higher education. Denison model. human capital is not another factor of production, but it is employed. The job has more or less skills depending on the level of education completed. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Psacharopoulos (1971, 116-9) used historical data from around the world to conclude that the contribution of education to growth is relevant everywhere but is greater in developing countries. The two models give different results. Schultz’s model shows significant contributions to education in only a few countries (including the United States). Higher education is not the most important in any of the 13 countries. The influence of secondary education is divided into primary (46%), secondary (40%) and tertiary (14%). Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

This approach, rooted in neoclassical economics, places a clear role for individuals in promoting economic growth. The authors examine the economic return on investment in education as a strategic sector. A person enters only if this method is effective. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Role Of Education In Economic Development Ppt

12 Competency Approach 1980s. After Sen’s suggestion, Martha Nussbaum revisited it. Development = Empowerment Not all abilities are “valuable”. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Reaganomics: Definition, Policies, And Impact

Function: the set of things a person “is” and “does”. For example, being a professor, being healthy, being educated, etc. Function is a part of human life. Capabilities: the set of things that a person “can be” and “could be”; that is, the set of all functions from which the final function (obtained function) can be selected. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Education plays a dual role in (human) development. – Direct Obligation – Indirect Obligation Indirect Obligation. Economic Production Social Change (“Human Capital and Human Capability”) Francesco Burchi Master HDFS

Direct duty. for example, learning enables the full enjoyment of cultural activities that directly improve one’s life (Terzi, 2003). “Education develops critical thinking processes and relationships with other people that are not only instrumental but also morally important” (Unterhalter, 1999). Indirect role. being educated not only allows for higher earnings and productivity, but also allows for participation in public debate, voting, and greater engagement. While the human capital approach recognizes only its indirect (or instrumental) role through economic production, the capability approach includes all these aspects. “Education develops not only the moral but also the process of communication and critical thinking” Francesco Burchi Master HDFS 30 Maggio 2008.

I. Robeyns (2006) distinguishes between instrumental roles for individuals and communities. economic – non-economic. 1.a) Economic role of the individual. Being educated allows people to find better jobs, increase their incomes, and avoid poverty. 1.b) Role of collective economy. education can contribute to economic growth at the national level and become the basis for changing the economic system (eg from an agrarian system to an industrial system). 2.a) Non-economic personal obligations. “education can open people’s minds” (p. 3), giving people better access to information, contraception, health care, and communication. 2.b) Non-economic collective obligations. For example, having a minimum education helps women realize that their low status is not the same all over the world and that together they can push for change. their situation. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Free Templates About Elections For Google Slides & Powerpoint

2 children failed the math test. same performance (unactivated) And their abilities? Focus on the personal situation (economic conditions of MSOs, access to education, …) and environmental / external conditions (learning environment, teachers’ ability, access to schools, low fees, …) Francesco Burchi Master HDFS 30 May 2008

Increases income, employment and productivity Ensures Enumeration Improves participation in household, community and political decision-making Improves social relations Increases opportunities (especially for women and vulnerable groups) Ensures high awareness of individual rights and can read instructions. Accessing information from written sources such as pills, posters, newspapers, etc. allows improving nutritional outcomes by improving diet Francesco Burchi Master HDFS

Challenges to the Human Capital Approach. a perfectly functioning labor market. correct signal. What about discrimination? “School … is like a car.” and the learning environment. Internal school dynamics determine educational inequalities that are not captured in the HCA. Policy implications. Invest in high earners (men). Indeed, there is a bias in the distribution of people’s occupations according to their skills and qualifications. The HCA does not take into account the labor market, where gender, caste and class discrimination play a role. These authors are not interested in debates about school content, cultural dynamics, teachers’ social lives, and learning processes. The ways in which educational disparities are linked to race, class, and gender, and persist across generations, are often overlooked. Francesco Burchi Master HDFS 30 Maggio 2008

Role Of Education In Economic Development Ppt

Alkire analyzes Oxfam’s literacy project in Pakistan, which aims to increase women’s incomes and raise awareness of household issues such as reading, writing, health and nutrition. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Chapter 1: What Is Development?

After HCA, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, the project is considered a failure because: (a) Traditional and opportunity costs are high for women. (b) Economic benefits have proven to be very limited. There is no labor market for women due to social limitations. So they engage in trades where literacy does not increase their income. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Consider the broader benefits, not just the economic ones. Thus, Alkire attempts to evaluate program enhancements by allowing students to identify and categorize program enhancements. Women cite knowledge and empowerment as key strengths, which “emphasize awareness of what they can do and be” (Alkire 2002, p. 266). Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

After CA, the project is funded because it affects key aspects of women’s lives and creates social change that is not recognized within the human capital framework. The latter can be helpful to see if similar results can be obtained at lower cost. After all, the cost of a broader approach is complicated. Evaluating a project through CA, i.e. measuring the broader learning component, is obviously more problematic than evaluating it within the framework of human capital. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

We do not believe that people are only looking for short-term monetary gain. We can analyze social impacts, many of which cannot be measured. Primary and basic education is given priority as the general goal is to increase critical abilities and responsibility of people. The general importance of women’s education was well recognized. Francesco Burchi HDFS Master

Chapter 3 Classic Theories Of Economic Growth And Development

Input indicators (quantity and quality) Output indicators (quantity and quality) Output indicators (learning-related functions, qualitative and quantitative indicators) Effects of learning inputs and outputs

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