Human Organ Systems And Their Functions – Billy Ray Cyrus’ song “Achy Breaky Heart” has the following lyrics: Heartache, heartbreak… it’s about love. Have you ever wondered why the heart is associated with love? The heart was once thought to be the center of all thought processes, as well as the seat of all emotions. This idea may have originated from very early anatomical dissections, which could reveal many nerves in the region of the heart. It may have contributed to the idea that the heart can start racing when someone is excited or emotionally upset. In fact, the heart is not the organ that controls thoughts or emotions. The organ that controls these functions is the brain. In this concept you will learn about the heart, brain and other important organs of the human body.
An organ is a group of tissues joined together in a structural unit to perform a common function. Organs are found in multicellular organisms, including not only humans and other animals, but also plants. In unicellular organisms such as bacteria, the functional equivalent of an organelle is an organelle.
Human Organ Systems And Their Functions
Although organs contain many types of tissue, many organs are composed of a basic tissue connected to other tissues that perform the organ’s primary function and support roles. The underlying tissue may be unique to a particular organ. For example, the main tissue of the heart is cardiac muscle, the main function of the heart is to pump blood and is found only in the heart. The heart also contains the nerves and connective tissue necessary to perform its vital function. For example, nervous tissue controls heart rate, and connective tissue makes heart valves that allow blood to flow in one direction.
The Functions Of The Skeletal System
The human body has five organs that are considered essential for survival. They are the heart, brain, kidneys, liver and lungs. The location of these five organs and several other internal organs is shown in the figure (PageIndex). If one of the five vital organs stops functioning, the death of the organism is inevitable without medical intervention.
Figure (PageIndex): Use this human anatomy shading diagram to trace the five organs described above: the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs. Do you know the functions of any of the other organs on the diagram?
Functionally related organs often work together to form a complete organ system. (PageIndex) and (PageIndex) show 11 human organ systems, including separate diagrams of the male and female reproductive systems. Some of the organs and functions of the organ systems are identified in the figure. Each system is described in more detail in the following text. Most of these human organ systems are the subject of different chapters in this book.
The organs of the integral system are the skin, hair and nails. The skin is the largest organ of the body. It covers and protects the body and is the site of many sensory receptors. The skin is the body’s first line of defense against pathogens and helps regulate body temperature and remove sweat waste.
Functions Of Respiratory System
The skeletal system consists of bones, joints, teeth. The bones of the skeletal system are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The functions of the skeletal system are to support and give shape to the body. Along with the muscular system, the skeletal system allows the body to move. The bones of the skeletal system protect internal organs, store calcium, and produce red and white blood cells.
The muscular system is made up of three different types of muscles, including skeletal muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons and allow voluntary body movements. Smooth muscle tissue controls the involuntary movement of internal organs, such as the organs of the digestive system, and moves food through the system. The smooth muscles of the blood vessels allow vasoconstriction and vasodilatation and thus help regulate body temperature. The muscle tissues of the heart control the involuntary beating of the heart, which allows it to pump blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system.
The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system, and the nerves that run throughout the rest of the body, which make up the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system controls the voluntary and involuntary responses of the human organism and detects and processes sensory information.
The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream, which transport hormones throughout the body. Endocrine hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The main gland of the endocrine system is the pituitary gland, which produces hormones that regulate other endocrine glands. Other endocrine glands include the pancreas, thyroid and adrenal glands.
Lymphatic System: Definition, Anatomy, Function, And Diseases
The cardiovascular system (also called the circulatory system) consists of the heart, blood, and three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps the blood, and it passes through the blood vessels. The main function of the cardiovascular system is transport. Oxygen is transported from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive system to cells throughout the body. Carbon dioxide and other waste products are picked up from the cells and transported to organs such as the lungs and kidneys to be eliminated from the body. The cardiovascular system equalizes body temperature and transports endocrine hormones to body cells where they are needed.
The urinary system consists of a pair of kidneys, which filter excess water and a waste product called urea from the blood to produce urine. Two tubes called ureters carry urine from the kidney to the ureter, which stores the urine until it is expelled from the body through another tube called the ureter. The kidneys also produce an enzyme called renin and several hormones. These substances help to regulate blood pressure, red blood cell production and the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
The organs and other structures of the respiratory system include the nasal passages, the lungs, and a long tube called the trachea, which carries air between the nasal passages and the lungs. The main function of the respiratory system is to supply oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Gases are exchanged between the lungs and the blood through the walls of the capillaries that line the small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs.
The lymphatic system is sometimes considered part of the immune system. It consists of a network of lymphatic vessels and tubes that collect excess fluid (called lymph) from the extracellular spaces of the tissues and transport the fluid to the bloodstream. The lymphatic system consists of numerous small clusters of tissue called lymph nodes and an organ called the spleen, both of which remove pathogens and cellular debris from the lymph or blood. In addition, the thymus gland in the lymphatic system produces certain types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that fight infection.
Human Musculoskeletal System
The digestive system consists of several major organs, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines, which form a long tube called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food moves through this region, where it digests, absorbs nutrients and expels waste products. The digestive system also includes accessory organs (such as the pancreas and liver) that produce enzymes and other substances needed for digestion, but do not actually pass food through.
The reproductive system is the only body system that varies significantly between individuals. There are many logical genders, but most books divide them into male and female. We discuss the logic of sexuality in detail in the chapters on reproduction and development.
Surgeons have been performing organ transplants for more than six decades, and you’ve no doubt heard of people receiving heart, lung, and kidney transplants. However, you may never have heard of a penile transplant. The first penile transplant in the United States was performed in May 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. A team of more than 50 doctors, surgeons and nurses participated in the 15-hour procedure. The patient was a 64-year-old man who lost his penis to cancer in 2012. The surgical milestone involves grafting the donor’s fine blood vessels and nerves into the recipient organ. Like most transplant patients, this patient will need to take immunosuppressants for the rest of his life to prevent his immune system from rejecting the organ. Their transplant success “holds promise for patients with devastating genitourinary injuries and diseases,” the transplant team said. They hope their experiences will be useful for gender reassignment surgery.
Professor Anthony Atala is working to answer an important question: can we grow new replacement organs instead of transplanting organs from other people? In his state-of-the-art laboratory, he and his colleagues grow human organs, including blood vessels, bladders and kidneys. Watch the fascinating TED talk below to see how they do it. Cookies help us provide a better experience on our website. By using our website, you accept the use of certain cookies. to
The Main Difference In Western And Eastern Views Of Physiology
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