Global Warming Causes And Effects Pdf – Global warming refers to the increase in average global temperatures since the industrial revolution. Average global temperatures have increased by about one degree (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880. Global warming is an ongoing process; Scientists expect the global average temperature to rise another 0.3 to 0.7 degrees Celsius (0.54 to 1.26 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2035.
Some gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, trap the Sun’s heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. These greenhouse gases (GHGs) occur naturally in the atmosphere and help keep the Earth’s surface warm enough to support life. Without greenhouse gases, Earth’s average temperature would be zero degrees Fahrenheit instead of about 58.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
Global Warming Causes And Effects Pdf
Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels (i.e., coal, natural gas, and oil) to power cars, businesses, and homes, release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Other activities such as deforestation (cutting down of trees) and animal husbandry also produce greenhouse gases.
Global Warming Project
Higher concentrations of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap more heat in the Earth and cause anthropogenic (i.e., human-made) increases in global temperatures. Climate scientists agree that human activities are the main cause of global warming.
The terms climate change and global warming are often used interchangeably, but climate change generally refers to permanent changes in average weather conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, atmospheric pressure, ocean temperature, etc.). narrow concept. Increasing global average temperature of the Earth.
Climate change can refer to the natural change in Earth’s average temperature over geological time, between cold periods (glacial periods known as ice ages) and warm periods (interglacial periods).
The climate changes we are currently experiencing are caused by human activities (see question 2). Scientists concluded that the Earth’s surface must have cooled slightly in the last 50 years due to natural factors such as solar intensity and volcanic activity; Instead, increased fossil fuel consumption has led to global warming, and at a much faster rate than at any time in the last 800,000 years.
Climate Change, Human Health, And Resilience In The Holocene
The increase in global average temperature resulting from human activities has many impacts on the planet, including more frequent and severe droughts and storms, melting glaciers and ice sheets, rising sea levels, warming oceans, and ocean acidification (see question 8). . People around the world are already feeling the effects of climate change on the environment. Changing climate conditions can destroy crops and cause severe water shortages. Rising sea levels threaten low-lying islands and coastal cities. Tropical diseases and insects spread when their hosts move to new places that were previously too cold to survive.
Climate change poses a serious threat to the health and well-being of human societies, especially in communities that lack resources and are therefore ill-equipped to cope with the effects of climate warming.
5. What does global warming have to do with extreme weather conditions such as hurricanes, heat waves, droughts, and tornadoes?
Rising global temperatures are increasing the intensity and likelihood of hurricanes, floods, wildfires, droughts and heat waves. In warmer climates, the atmosphere can accumulate, store, and release water, causing precipitation patterns to change. Increased rainfall could help support agriculture, but the rains will come in the form of more intense, day-long storms, damaging property and infrastructure and causing loss of life in affected areas. In recent years, the United States has experienced more heat waves and fewer cold snaps. Since the 1960s, the duration of the warm season has increased by more than 40 days in many cities. Today, major U.S. cities experience an average of more than six heat waves per year, compared to an average of two heat waves per year in the 1960s. Global warming also causes sea surface temperatures to increase because most of the heat stored in the Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans. Warmer sea surface temperatures make it easier for hurricanes to form. Due to human-caused global warming, hurricane precipitation rates are expected to increase, hurricane intensity to increase, and the proportion of hurricanes reaching Category 4 or 5 to increase.
Climate Change Feedback
It is difficult for researchers to link any particular weather event to global warming. But climate scientists believe higher average global temperatures will make extreme weather events more likely and more severe. The United States is seeing a marked increase in the number of devastating weather and climate disasters, as well as an increase in coastal and river flooding (meaning more people and infrastructure will be affected in these regions). The chart below from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) shows the number and impact of billion-dollar disasters from 1980-2019.
6. If global warming is real, why is it so cold and snowy this winter? (Difference between climate and weather.)
The key to understanding the answer to this question is the difference between weather and climate. Weather is what’s happening outside today, while climate is the specific climate of a region. It may be raining in Los Angeles today, but the city’s weather is generally dry. As global average temperatures increase, winters tend to become shorter and less snowy. However, we still experience colder days and colder-than-average years due to weather changes in atmospheric circulation.
For snow to fall, humidity and freezing temperatures must be present. Both conditions still exist in winter, especially in areas where temperatures are well below freezing (so even if you increase the average temperature in that area, many winter days will still be below freezing). Therefore, global warming does not prevent winter from being snowy. In fact, in some regions, global warming may lead to more severe winter storms. For example, places like the United States are more likely (but may be less likely) to experience more severe winter storms as rising sea surface temperatures fuel more intense storms. Scientists expect that as global temperatures continue to warm, winters will become shorter on average, resulting in fewer snowy days overall.
Pdf) Global Warming: Causes, Effects And Solutions
Cumulative sea level changes in the world’s oceans since 1880. Blue line shows sea level with tide gauges (1880-2013); orange line shows sea level measured by satellites (1993-2018).
Source: US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). Data sources: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organization (CSIRO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Global warming contributes to sea level rise in two main ways. First, higher temperatures cause glaciers and glaciers to melt faster, which causes water to move from land to the ocean. Areas experiencing significant ice melt include Greenland, Antarctica, and mountain glaciers around the world.
Second, thermal expansion, the process by which hot water takes up more space, causes an increase in the volume of the oceans, which in turn causes sea levels to rise.
File:20200118 Global Warming And Climate Change
Other factors affect sea level, and the combination of all these factors causes sea level rise at different rates across the planet. Local factors that may cause sea levels to rise faster in some areas include ocean currents and land subsidence (known as subsidence).
Since 1880, the world’s average sea level has risen between 20 and 23 centimeters. In a low emissions scenario, models predict sea level rise will rise by about 30 centimeters above 2000 levels by the end of the century. Under the high emissions scenario, sea levels could rise 2.5 meters above 2000 levels by 2100. Either way, this increases the risk of coastal flooding and puts millions of people living in low-lying coastal areas like New York and Los Angeles at risk. Angeles. Angeles and Miami.
The ocean is a central component of the carbon cycle. Carbon constantly circulates between the ocean, land, and atmosphere (this is called carbon flux). Seawater absorbs 25 to 30 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. As humans release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (see question 2), the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide. This changes the chemical composition of the ocean and is called ocean acidification. The pH of the ocean decreased by 0.1 pH units, representing an increase in acidity of approximately 30%. This change is enough to affect many marine organisms. For example, acids inhibit the formation of mollusk shells and can even cause the shells to break down.
Livestock farming contributes to climate change indirectly, both through digestive processes and through vegetation that makes room for animals.
What Causes Global Climate Change?
In total, agriculture is responsible for 10% of US greenhouse gas emissions. Global agricultural waste results from the digestive process of ruminant animals (such as cows, sheep, and goats), manure left on pastures, synthetic fertilizers, rice cultivation, land burning, and processing of soil and crop residues.
Livestock, especially cattle, produce methane when they digest. Animal manure also emits methane. Animal waste and manure together account for 38% of total methane emissions in the United States. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas with a warming effect 25 times that of carbon dioxide in 100 years.
Forests are frequently cut down or burned to gain land
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