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Global Studies Vs International Relations
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By Koos Agnes Katalin Koos Agnes Katalin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * and Kenneth Keulman Kenneth Keulman Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 2
Received: September 16, 2019 / Revised: November 25, 2019 / Accepted: December 2, 2019 / Published: December 4, 2019
Associate Professorship In The Politics And International Relations Of Japan At University Of Oxford
Global studies, or the study of globalization, is a diverse discipline with different subject areas and some national variations. The Russian Oleksandr Chumakov constructed it as a philosophical discipline, while in American scientific circles it is considered an empirical study at the intersection of territorial studies, international studies and international relations. This article focuses on American globalists and points to the heavy epistemological burdens they have inherited from an international relations-dominated field of knowledge that includes both methodological and political nationalism. International Relations claims to be the only theorist in this field, but it can be criticized for many methodological and ethical problems (for example, unjustified simplifications that purify the empirical content to the point of unfalsifiability, outdated epistemic ideals, Western and hegemonic prejudices, and even methodological nationalism), so the alternative theories are highly desirable.
At the beginning of 2017, the English-speaking scientific world celebrated the publication of the book by Manfred Steger and Amentahra Wallrab. Reviewers emphasized that it was a much-needed basic text for the emerging new discipline, which at the time was unhesitatingly called “global studies” (GS) after decades of alternating and common names such as “globalization studies” and “global studies”. . . ‘. and international studies”. The authors have done an excellent job in searching for the intellectual roots of globalism, delimiting its scientific field, and discussing its methods, and the book easily passes all traditional academic tests. However, the specificity of the topic also raises another question: to what extent does the work embody American (or Western or Global North) perspective versus a truly global (or culturally unbiased) perspective?
To their credit, the authors have tried to eliminate Western bias in their field, but a certain amount of bias and successfully overcoming it are two different realities. The book’s bibliography covers English-language titles only, although some “foreign” classics such as Gramsci and Lyotard do. Oleksandr Chumakov, whose book Selected Papers on Globalization was published in English in 2010 at the recommendation of Roland Robertson and William Gay, is particularly missing. However, Chumakov’s philosophical perspective clearly contrasted with the epistemological genealogy outlined by Steger and Wallrab, who, following Mittelman (2002), construct GS at the intersection of area studies (AS), international studies (IS) and international relations (IR). . ). , as in Figure 1.
Historically, this has been quite true of American literature, with somewhat unfortunate consequences for the ability of global studies to overcome certain prejudices of the Western academy. This origin limits GS to an “international” vision. Steger and Walrab argue for the benefits of ‘transdisciplinarity’ over ‘disciplinarity’ and ‘disciplinarity’. The prefix “inter” is supposed to reinforce, not erase, borders. Robertson (2010) also argues that global studies must be transdisciplinary, “that is, post-disciplinary, anti-disciplinary, interdisciplinary and unfortunately also interdisciplinary. I reject the latter, because it actually leads to the strengthening of discipline, not to its defeat” (5-8). We prefer the term “transnational” to “international” and “multinational” (“transnational” would be a much better word if the term had not been adopted in European Union studies). Based on three disciplines heavily marked by methodological nationalism, can we trust global studies more than ‘international’ or ‘multinational’?
Central University Of Kerala ::
This article is not intended to be a critique of Steger and Wallrab’s book, although it does offer some ideas on how to become more global and less American. It aims to analyze the field of knowledge in which Steger and Walrab place global studies, which also includes socio-political thinking about issues that cross nation-state borders. On closer inspection, this range shows a strong bipolarity. It is clearly dominated by international relations that stubbornly maintain the primacy of nation-states, while the opposing vision and ethos of global interconnectedness is struggling to gain ground.
The first part of the article elaborates these claims regarding the situation of the four scientific fields and proves the priority of international relations within them. The second part analyzes the entrenched biases of IR that have been mediated by nominally autonomous international studies and area studies. In the last part, the arguments for the unification of the industry will be discussed under the primacy of globalism.
The first decade of American political science, built by the Chicago School of the Progressive Era, showed no intellectual interest in international politics. Political science “foreign relations,” the field of international relations, began in Britain in 1919 and as an academic discipline in the United States after Hans Morgenthau ( 1993) joined the University of Chicago, where he co-founded it. the Committee on International Relations. The work of the first institution of higher education in the United States was realized in the 1940s with the publication of Quincy Wright’s Studies in War and Morgenthau’s Politics among Nations.
However, since the 1940s, the growth of IR has become exponential and has had a significant impact on other fields and disciplines. Until now, most of the presidents of the International Studies Association (ISA) have been political scientists working in the field of IR. If we talk about exact numbers, then 53 of the 57 presidents were political scientists and 50 were Americans, that is, they studied and worked at American universities1. ISA’s flagship journals are impact tested as IR journals and rank very well on this list. Of the 74 ISA partner organizations, 33 operate in the field of political science, 18 have the title “international studies” (these are national or regional IS organizations), and 23 are of a different nature, such as special area studies, social studies, and honorary societies. After the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Studies changed its name to the Toda Peace Institute, none of the partner organizations have the word “global” in their titles anymore. Against the evidence of international studies’ dependence on international relations, it is difficult to portray IS as anything other than an IR colony. Indeed, Steger and Wallrab highlight this dependence in stark terms: “Founded in 1959 by largely disaffected American political scientists, the ISA adopted a methodological nationalism that generally served the geopolitical strategies and priorities of the First World and the United States. States. states. especially hegemony” (p. 8).
Pdf) Toward An Anti Disciplinary Global Studies
Unfortunately, similar considerations also apply to the area called country studies. You could also say it grew up in a “national security environment,” with funds provided by the US government and private foundations that promote values that make the world more hospitable to Western economic goals. In addition, the 1990s also saw a significant shift in area studies, with significant efforts to move away from rural studies to studies of larger geographic scope and to incorporate more “globalism” driven by neoliberal economics’ interest in globalization. .
In this connection, we can ask the question, how independent is global research from IR today? The main challenge to GS independence is the lack of subject definition. Traditionally, globalization is when events in one part of the world affect events in other parts of the world. However, the entrenched methodological nationalism of IR, which is deeply rooted in both IS and AS, is a serious obstacle to the initiation of a global perspective and methodology. We are much less optimistic about the progress of global research in American academia than Steger and Wallrab.
First, the American higher education system does not recognize “global studies” as such. The College Board’s college search system uses a dual title: “international studies/global studies.” Search from June 2017