Economic Problems Around The World – The world’s three largest economies are at an impasse, with serious implications for the global outlook. Inflation is a big concern.
The global economy, still reeling from the pandemic and Russia’s attack on Ukraine, faces an increasingly bleak and uncertain outlook. Many of the risks announced in April’s World Economic Outlook are beginning to materialize.
Economic Problems Around The World
Higher-than-expected inflation, especially in the major economies of the United States and Europe, is leading to a tightening of global financial conditions. China’s slowdown was worse than expected amid the COVID-19 pandemic and government shutdown, with the war in Ukraine adding to the negative impact. As a result, world production contracted in the second quarter of this year.
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According to the baseline forecast, the growth rate is expected to decline from 6.1% last year to 3.2% this year and 2.9% next year, slowing by 0.4 percentage points and 0.7 percentage points from April. This reflects slowing growth in the world’s three largest economies – the US, China and the euro area – and has a significant impact on the global outlook.
In the United States, the growth rate is expected to slow to 2.3% this year and 1% next year due to declining household purchasing power and tightening monetary policy. Continued shutdowns and a deepening housing crisis in China have pushed growth to 3.3% this year, the lowest level in more than 40 years, excluding the pandemic. And in the eurozone, growth will be revised down to 2.6% this year and 1.2% in 2023, reflecting the effects of the war in Ukraine and monetary tightening.
Despite the slowdown in economic activity, global inflation was revised upwards, partly due to higher food and energy prices. Inflation is expected to rise this year to 6.6% in developed countries and 9.5% in developing and emerging countries (0.9 percentage points and 0.8 percentage points, respectively), and is expected to remain high for a long time Inflation is also accelerating in many countries, reflecting the impact of cost pressures from supply chain disruptions and historically tight labor markets.
Alternative scenarios in which some of these risks are more likely to materialize, such as a total shutdown of Russian gas supplies to Europe, would lead to accelerating inflation and global economic growth to around 2.6% this year and around 2% next year the growth rate remains below. Only five times since 1970. In this scenario, both the United States and the euro area would experience near-zero growth next year, with negative implications for the rest of the world.
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Current levels of inflation pose a clear risk to current and future macroeconomic stability, and getting back into line with the central bank’s targets should be the main objective of policymakers. The data prompted central banks in major advanced economies to withdraw financial support earlier than expected in April, even though many emerging and developing economies had already started raising interest rates last year.
The simultaneous tightening of domestic monetary policies is unprecedented in history, and the impact is expected to be even more severe as global economic growth slows and inflation moderates next year. Tight monetary policy inevitably has real economic costs, and delaying it will only make matters worse. Central banks that have started to tighten should maintain that policy until inflation is under control.
Targeted financial support can help reduce the impact on the most vulnerable. However, the pandemic is straining public budgets and requires macroeconomic policies to curb general inflation, replacing targeted support with tax increases and public spending cuts, which will ensure that fiscal policy does not hamper the role of monetary policy.
Financial conditions are tightening, especially in emerging countries, as developed countries raise interest rates to combat inflation. Countries must make appropriate use of macroprudential instruments to protect financial stability. If flexible exchange rates are not sufficient to absorb external shocks, decision makers must be prepared to implement exchange rate interventions and capital flow management measures in crisis scenarios.
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These challenges come at a time when many countries have limited fiscal policy maneuverability and the proportion of low-income countries with debt problems or high risk of debt has reached 60%, up from 20% a decade ago. Rising borrowing costs, shrinking credit flows, a strong dollar and slowing growth add to the difficulties.
Debt resolution mechanisms remain slow and unpredictable, hampered by difficulties in reaching coordinated agreements on competing claims from multiple creditors. While recent progress in implementing the G20 common framework is encouraging, further improvements are urgently needed.
National policies on the effects of rising energy and food prices should focus on those that will have the greatest impact without distorting prices. Governments should refrain from hoarding food and energy and instead work to remove trade barriers, such as food embargoes that drive up world prices. As the pandemic progresses, governments will need to scale up vaccination campaigns, address bottlenecks in vaccine distribution and ensure equal access to treatment.
Finally, mitigating climate change still requires rapid multilateral action to limit emissions and increase investments to accelerate the green transition. The war in Ukraine and rising energy prices are prompting governments to turn to fossil fuels such as coal as a stopgap measure. Policymakers and regulators must ensure that such measures are temporary and only cover the energy shortfall, rather than increasing emissions. Credible and comprehensive climate policies to increase the supply of green energy should be urgently accelerated. The energy crisis also shows how clean and green energy independence policies can be compatible with national security goals.
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The outlook has deteriorated significantly since April. Just two years after the last recession, the world may soon be on the brink of a global recession. Multilateral cooperation will play an important role in many areas, from climate change and pandemic preparedness to food security and the debt crisis. Amid major challenges and controversies, increased cooperation remains the best way to improve economic prospects and reduce the risk of geo-economic fragmentation.
Fragmentation could make it difficult to support many vulnerable emerging and developing countries that have experienced multiple shocks.
Readers will focus on the impact of war on the world, the impact of a strong dollar, and policies that can help restore economic growth.
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A year ago, we were shaken by geopolitical changes that had unexpected ramifications. Currently, the situation does not seem very stable. The results of the Brexit vote and the US presidential election signal a dramatic shift in global cooperation and an increase in protectionism. In fact, these votes call into question the international cooperation of multilateral institutions and the countries that implement this cooperation. In the fall of 2017, we brought together a group of senior officials from 13 major international organizations to try to address these issues.
Exactly 10 years ago, in 2007, the first signs of the Great Recession appeared. In 2008, the US-led subprime crisis turned into a global financial crisis. In 2010, Europe was in its own crisis, with financial markets in turmoil and several countries in a downward spiral of debt and banking crises.
Despite continued economic recovery and successful economic recovery in both North America and Europe, 2016 showed some worrying trends. Some major companies have shown reduced commitment to multilateral cooperation, criticism of open free trade and concern about climate change. This new situation increases uncertainty and threatens improvements in macroeconomic and financial fundamentals. There will also be tensions in relations between large international corporations and between national citizens. In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom, it has deeply divided societies and threatened to reverse seven decades of international cooperation.
All these factors also put pressure on international institutions. International organizations are increasingly being asked to redefine their roles to ensure that their programs and activities remain relevant in this changing political and macroeconomic environment. They are also required to show the kind of value they bring to people’s lives. At the same time, lean structures should be maintained to minimize the burden on taxpayers and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of operations. So what changed?
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There are five global trends of change that by their nature require international cooperation, but which have been underestimated, underestimated and underestimated at the national and international level. The results rocked our world with unexpected power.
Humans have an ancient tendency to compare themselves to their neighbors, especially when it comes to wealth. We care less about the absolute level of wealth, but more about what we have and what we possess in relation to those around us. According to the Boston Report, global personal wealth reached a record $166.5 trillion in 2016, an increase of 5.3% over the previous year.
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