Climate Change Impact On Environment – The National Climate Assessment assesses the current and future impacts of climate change in the United States.
The report was developed by a panel of more than 300 experts, led by a 60-member federal advisory committee, and panel members from the public and experts, including federal agencies and the National Academy of Sciences.
Climate Change Impact On Environment
This section answers frequently asked questions about climate change. The questions range from issues entirely related to the science of climate change to some of the issues that arise when considering mitigation and adaptation measures.
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Lead Author John Walsh, University of Alaska Fairbanks Donald Wubbles, University of Illinois Lead Author Catherine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University James Kosin, NOAA, National Climatic Data Center, Kenneth Kunkel, CICS-NC, North Carolina State University. Graham Stevens Center, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Peter Thorne, Nansen Center for Environmental and Remote Sensing Russell Voss, NOAA National Climatic Data Center Michael Wenner, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Josh Willis, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and C.N.O.C. Viacheslav Harin, Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis, Environment Canada Thomas Knutson, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Felix Landerer, NASA Jet Laboratory Tim Lenton, University of Exeter John Kennedy, University of Exeter, UK Richard Somer Office of Meteorology. San Diego, California
This section answers frequently asked questions about climate change. The questions range from issues entirely related to the science of climate change to some of the issues that arise when considering mitigation and adaptation measures. The editorial team selected these questions based on the most frequently asked questions during public presentations. Answers are based on science and peer-reviewed evaluations and supported by multiple analyses.
If you can’t predict next week’s weather, how can you predict what the climate will be like 100 years from now?
Predicting how the climate will change in the coming decades is a different scientific challenge than predicting the weather a few weeks from now. The weather is short-lived and erratic, and most of the time is determined by the way the atmospheric system moves, making it difficult to predict day-to-day changes more than two weeks into the future. Climate, on the other hand, is the long-term statistical average of weather determined by large-scale forces, such as the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the energy of the Sun. Therefore, it is easy to project how the climate will change in the future. By analogy, the age of anyone’s death is also unpredictable
The Science Of Climate Change Explained: Facts, Evidence And Proof
America’s age at death can be calculated. In this case, the weather is like a human, the climate is normal. To extend this analogy to the realm of climate change, we can also calculate the life expectancy of the average American smoker. We can predict that, on average, people who smoke will not live as long. Likewise, we can project what the climate will be like if we emit greenhouse gases and what if we emit more. More…
Weather is the daily changes in temperature, rainfall, and other aspects of the atmosphere. Using modern computer models, weather forecasting several days to a week in advance can be very accurate. Because weather forecasts are based on the initial conditions of the atmosphere and oceans, accuracy decreases over time. After about two weeks, the effect of a small error in determining the initial conditions is so great that meteorologists cannot predict what the weather will be like on a certain day or location.
Climate – Long-term average weather – statistics about the weather over a long time scale, usually 30 years or more. Climate is mainly the result of local geographic effects, such as distance to the equator, distance from the ocean, local topography, and elevation, combined with large-scale climate factors that can change over time. This includes the amount of energy received from the sun and the composition of the atmosphere, greenhouse gases and particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere. Knowing all these factors allows scientists to calculate the climate of a certain place and time. Climate change occurs when these large-scale climate factors change over time.
By understanding the physics of how the atmosphere works, we can predict how the climate will change in the future – as a response to human activity, which has changed the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere more rapidly for at least the last 800,000 years. . It is also possible to predict changes in certain weather statistics, such as heat waves or heavy rain events, especially if you know how they change.
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We know how the climate has changed in the past, and we know why. For example, the increase in global temperature in the past 150 years, or global warming, can only be explained by the effects of human activity on the rise in the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The current generation of climate models can successfully reproduce past warming and thus provide the tools needed to predict the future.
The role of human activity in making recent changes is discussed in this FAQ. (In the context of a changing climate, the term “human activity” is used specifically to refer to the extraction and burning of fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide, deforestation, agriculture, waste management, etc.). . with urban heat island.
Yes. The world has warmed over the past 150 years, and that warming has caused many other changes to Earth’s climate. There is abundant evidence of climate change from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the ocean. changes in surface temperature, atmosphere and sea; melting glaciers, snowpack and sea ice; sea level rise; The increase in atmospheric water vapor has been confirmed by hundreds of studies by thousands of scientists around the world. Rain and storms change, and drought occurs. More…
Documenting climate change is often the global average temperature recorded on human surfaces. But this temperature recorded by the weather station is an indicator of climate change. Additional evidence for a warming world comes from consistent measurements of Earth’s climate system. The combination of these indicators leads to the conclusion that the warming of our planet is certain.
Billion People: Four Ways Climate Change And Population Growth Combine To Threaten Public Health, With Global Consequences
Evidence of climate change does not reach the earth’s surface. Measurements by weather balloons and satellites show that the temperature of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, is increasing. The temperature in the upper atmosphere, especially the stratosphere, has cooled in line with the expected change due to increased CO concentration.
And other greenhouse gases. The upper ocean has warmed, and more than 90% of the additional energy absorbed by the climate system since the 1960s has been stored in the ocean. As the oceans warm, seawater expands and sea levels rise.
As the troposphere warms, Arctic polar ice and glaciers melt, causing sea levels to rise. As it warms, 90% of the world’s glaciers and ice sheets melt, raising sea levels. Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover has been declining since the 1950s. There is significant loss of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, especially in late summer when sea ice is at its lowest (see question L for discussion of Antarctic sea ice).
Warm air generally contains more water vapor. Globally, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere has increased over land and oceans over the past half century. On the other hand, heavy rain events are increasing in many parts of the world. All of these indicators, and the independent data for each indicator, reach the same conclusion: from the ocean depths to the top of the troposphere, the world is warming, and the climate is responding to that warming.
How To Reduce Human Caused Environmental Changes
In summary, the evidence for climate change comes from many independent observations. As discussed in Question I and Details 2: Our Changing Climate and Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement, evidence of human-caused climate change comes from observations, basic physics, and modeling studies.
Earth has experienced many climate changes in the past. However, current climate change is unusual for two reasons: first, most of the evidence points to this change being fundamental.
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