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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Biotechnology Pdf
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Industrial Applications Of Microbial Salt Tolerant Enzymes
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Author Sergio Montaner-Tarbes Sergio Montaner-Tarbes Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Lorenzo Fraile Lorenzo Fraile Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 , Maria Montoya Maria Montoia Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3 and Hernando Dellit Preprints Portillo .org Google academician 1, 4
ICREA at ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health and IGTP, Trias I Pujol German Institute for Health Research, 08916 Badalona, Spain
Pros And Cons Of Using Biotechnology In Agriculture
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 27 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new and complex diseases affecting animal health and animal nutrition management, infectious diseases have become a major concern worldwide. Medicines are the most important and cost-effective means of treating infectious diseases in animal health, but they only account for 23% of the global market. animal health, indicating that new vaccines need to be developed. A new strategy in animal vaccination is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs), bilayered lipid nanovesicles produced by all organisms, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes. EVs have been evaluated as an important source of viral antigens for eliciting specific immune responses and developing new sites of attack, since viruses and EVs share biogenesis pathways. Early experiments with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Marek’s disease virus (MDV) demonstrated the role of EVs in eliciting immune responses, protection and antibodies. In addition, protection against parasitic diseases such as Eimeria (chicken) and Plasmodium ioelii (mouse) was found. Therefore, research into electric vehicles opens up the opportunity for new strategies to overcome age-old problems related to food safety, animal health and emerging diseases. Here, we review various common approaches to vaccine design and compare them to examples of EV viruses that have been tested for animal health.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), one of the main challenges of the future is to meet the demand for food . The United Nations estimates that the world population will increase to 9.7 billion by 2050 and 10.8 billion by 2080, an increase of 32% and 47%, respectively. Additionally, WHO/FAO reports have shown that food and milk consumption will increase by more than 44% by 2030 . Therefore, there are important problems to solve in the coming years, such as improving agricultural productivity and preventing transboundary and emerging threats to agriculture and food systems . Unfortunately, there are few studies on the economic impact of transboundary animal diseases, and most of them refer only to operational costs. Other aspects, such as costs and impact on the market, trade, food safety, nutrition, financial costs of infectious diseases and surveillance and control measures, have not been well assessed [4, 5]. Because of the global and economic and social consequences, disease control for food safety and animal health has become a WHO/FAO priority [3, 4]. Some of these common animal diseases are brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, peste des petits ruminants, classical or African swine fever (CSF/ASF) and swine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). . ).
Pesticides are one of the most cost-effective means of controlling and eradicating infectious diseases and are a fundamental component of preventive medicine programs in animal agriculture. In this regard, the global market for animal health products was 15 billion dollars in 2005 , and of this amount, pharmaceuticals represented only 23% of the total , indicating the promotion of research and development of innovative strategies. because new and old animal diseases are in great demand. In fact, there are many pathogens for which there are currently no cures , including viral diseases, and according to OIE, animal health is more than half of them. They belong to 22 families of viruses, of which herpesviruses, rhabdoviruses, poxviruses and paramyxoviruses are responsible for the majority of recorded infections . Here, we review various common approaches to vaccine design and compare them to several examples of extracellular vesicle (EV) vaccines tested in animal health.
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Since the introduction of the rinderpest vaccine, conventional methods have been used to control viral diseases, focusing on the use of lethal and reduced doses . The first example of good medicine in medicine was developed by Walter Plowright in 1960 . This highly transmissible rinderpest virus was established in bovine kidney cells in vitro. After 40 days, the virus lost some of its virulence, and when used to protect cattle, there was no significant increase in temperature or adverse effects related to inoculation; Most importantly, this training method provided protection against challenge with virulent virus . In addition, serum neutralization titers were detected up to 36 months after vaccination, in contrast to 90 months, where the protective effect was not lost . However, attenuated viral infections can return to their original virulence after several passages in cattle, which is one of the main disadvantages of this treatment method. It has also been shown to be safe when taken with other medications. For example, in the case of PRRS virus (PRRSV), there are some live attenuated vaccines (MLV) that are approved and sold , but they have an undetectable effect due to the drug group (pigs, sows and gilts). . and cannot provide adequate protection between antigenically and genetically different species without the risk of returning to a virulent state or recombination with wild species [11, 12] . An important key to a PRRSV vaccine is that the important antigens and mechanisms of activation of immune responses are not known . A major biosecurity concern also applies to other diseases, such as African swine fever, but in this case other methods, such as genome editing, are used to eliminate virulent elements from African swine fever, leading to prosecution or more. carefully selected filters. (Table 1) . Not all viral infections can be successfully treated with biological agents and other strategies are needed.
Inactivated drugs are pathogens that are usually found in cell culture and then destroyed by physical or chemical means that cause denaturation of proteins or nucleic acids, retaining much of their original form but losing their infectivity and ability to replicate. Many examples of inactivated drugs are available in the literature where the activation of immune responses (cellular and antibody-mediated) and different levels of protection exist [31, 32], with characteristics as candidates for inactivated anti-inflammatory drugs. capripok. (CaPV), achieves sterile immunity when combined with specific adjuvants . The main advantage of inactivated drugs is that they provide a good safety profile with short- and medium-term protection. However, in the case of viral diseases, there is no long-term protection, because the replication of the pathogen is destroyed by the inactivation method. In addition, since many non-vaccines cannot provide protection against emerging infections, these vaccines must be expanded to cover new infections from time to time .
Subunit vaccines typically use a variety of expression platforms, such as bacterial, yeast, insect, and mammalian cell cultures, to produce the antigen of interest. Recently, other strategies based on non-fermentative systems (plants or insects) have been used . In general, subunit drugs are classified as drugs that use a part of a pathogen to trigger an immune response. They have the advantage of greater safety compared to live attenuated viruses and also allow higher production rates (scalability) than whole-pathogen vaccines [17,
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