12 Organ Systems And Their Functions – An organ is a group of tissues that work together for the overall function of the organ, and an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function. There are eleven organ systems in the human body. They are the integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and reproductive system (female and male). ).
Refer to Figures (PageIndex) and (PageIndex) below to identify the organs and functions of the eleven organ systems. Note that some entities perform activities that are directly involved in the functioning of more than one system. For example, the kidneys and ovaries both have endocrine functions (produce sex hormones) and reproductive functions (produce cells called gametes that will fuse together to create new organisms). Another example is the pancreas, which has an endocrine function (produces hormones) and a digestive function (produces fluids that help digest food).
12 Organ Systems And Their Functions
All organ systems must function properly for an organism, such as a human, to maintain homeostasis and health. Because all organ systems are ultimately composed of ions and molecules, an understanding of the chemical and cellular organization of the body as reviewed in this course is essential to successful practice in human anatomy and physiology.
Human Organs And Organ Systems
Figure (PageIndex) Organs and functions of nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, prostate system, cardiovascular system.
Figure (PageIndex) Organs and Functions of the Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Male and Female Reproductive Systems Anatomical Organization | home | | Body and Physiology | Physical and Physical Health Education (APHE) |
The human body is made up of various body organs, cavities, membranes and organ systems that comprise the various body systems. All of these are discussed in more detail in the following sections.
The body is divided into two main cavities, the anus and the vagina. These two main caves are divided into smaller subcaves. The spinal cavity protects the organs of the nervous system. Its two subdivisions include the cranial cavity, which encloses the brain, and the vertebral column (vertebral column) within the spinal column, which carries the spinal cord. The spinal cavity is also known as the spinal canal. The cranial cavity and spinal cord are continuous with each other. The vagina contains most of the body’s organs. Anterior and larger than the vagina, it contains the internal organs (visceral organs). The ventral cavity is divided into the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity.
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The chest cavity is surrounded by the chest muscles – the ribs and ribs, and contains the lungs and heart; organs of the heart, respiratory and lymphatic systems; lower esophagus; and the thymus. It is divided into the lateral pleural cavity, which surrounds each lung, and the mediastinum, which is the tissue that separates the cavity. Each alveolar cavity contains a serous membrane, shiny and slippery, and serves to reduce friction during lung expansion and contraction during respiration. The pleura is the serous membrane that covers the pleural cavity. The visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs. The parietal pleura covers the inner body wall and mediastinum.
The mediastinum is a bundle of connective tissue that surrounds and protects large blood vessels that originate in or terminate in the esophagus, trachea, thymus, and heart. It also contains a small space around the heart, called the pericardial cavity. The attached part of the heart is called base. The serous membrane of the heart is the pericardium, divided into the visceral pericardium (which covers the heart) and the opposite side, the parietal pericardium. As the heartbeat changes shape and size, the pericardial cavity changes. Friction is prevented by the diameter of the shoe, between the structure of the heart and the chest cavity.
The thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity are separated internally by the diaphragm, which is a flat sheet of muscle. The most important openings in the body are shown in Figure 1-3.
The abdominal cavity, which extends from the diaphragm to the clavicle, has subdivisions called the upper abdominal cavity and the lower pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity consists of a cavity (Fig. 1-4). This is a potential space lined by a serous membrane called the peritoneum. The peritoneal membrane consists of the parietal peritoneum that lines the wall and the visceral peritoneum that covers each organ. The movements of the digestive organs, although they may cause loud sounds or noises, do not cause damage because the peritoneum allows them to slide over each other.
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The abdominal cavity extends from the lower end of the diaphragm to the level of the upper border of the pelvis. It contains the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. These organs are completely or partially enclosed by the peritoneal cavity. However, some organs such as the kidneys and pancreas are located between the peritoneum and the muscles of the abdominal cavity. The organ behind the peritoneum is called retroperitoneal. Organs located in the peritoneum are called intraperitoneal. Table 1-2 lists the internal organs and retroperitoneal organs.
Diagnostic or “medical” imaging has been developed to look at the internal organs and structures of the body, both in normal and abnormal conditions. It began in the first decade of the 1900s when physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays. Until the 1950s, X-rays were the only imaging method available. In its early days, x-rays took a long time to produce and exposed patients to high doses of radiation. An example of an X-ray image is shown in Figure 1-5.
■■ The development of fluorescent screens used with special glasses enabled X-ray images to be displayed in real time but also exposed the doctor to radiation.
Barium and iodine contrast helps improve visualization of the esophagus, stomach, arteries, and other structures. Examples of procedures using contrast media include intravenous pyelograms and angiograms (Figure 1-6).
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■■ Radionuclide scanning, or nuclear medicine, was developed in the 1950s. This type of scanning uses special gamma cameras and low-radioactive chemicals in the body, which allow assessment of organ function. Nuclear medicine results are recorded as nuclear scans (Figure 1-7).
■■ Ultrasound scanning emerged in the 1960s, using high-frequency sound waves to enter the body, bounce off internal structures, and then be reproduced as a live image by a computer (Figure 1-8). Ultrasound is most useful for soft tissue and body fluids and is often used to view the gallbladder, bladder, and uterus.
■■ Digital imaging came about in the 1970s with the development of CT. All earlier technologies have been upgraded to digital form. Digital X-ray detectors replace previous analog technology, enabling better imaging and reduced health risks. CT takes an image in less than a second and immediately reconstructs it. It provides detailed cross-sectional images of body structures. Figure 1-9 shows a CT machine and Figure 1-10 shows a CT scan of the abdomen.
■■ First introduced in 1984, MRI allows detailed imaging without the risk of radiation (Figure 1-11). The image is produced by moving atomic protons intraatomic with a radio frequency signal. However, it cannot be used in patients with metal implants due to its extremely strong magnetism. In addition, the person must stay in a small, confined area for a long period of time. MRI is often used to image bones, bones, brain and nerves.
Human Cardiovascular System
In every organ system of the human body, different organs work together to maintain homeostasis. These organ systems include the nervous, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems (Figure 1-12).
The integrative system includes the skin, hair, nails, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sweat glands. The system protects the body’s basic tissues, helps regulate body temperature, has various sensory receptors, and produces certain substances (such as vitamin D).
The skeletal system supports and protects the body’s soft tissues and helps the body move. It consists of bones, which are held together by ligaments and cartilage. The skeletal system protects the soft tissue and connects the muscles. Bone also helps in blood formation and provides storage of mineral salts.
The muscular system works together with the skeletal system to help the body move. Body parts are moved by muscle contraction. Body posture and temperature are maintained by the muscular system. The muscular system also includes tendons.
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The nervous system, along with the endocrine system, controls and coordinates the work of various organs, helping to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and senses. Nerve impulses are electrochemical signals used by nerve cells to communicate with each other and with the body’s glands and muscles. Certain nerve cells (called sensory receptors) detect internal and external changes affecting the body. Other neurons interpret and respond to these stimuli. Extra nerve cells carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to glands and muscles. These nerves can stimulate muscles to contract and cause glands to secrete their products. Characteristics of the nervous system include short-term effects, rapid responses and more specific responses, as well as a variety of different types.
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