12 Body Systems And Their Functions – As we have learned, our bodies are complex processes that occur in cells, tissues, organs, and organs. But for life to function properly, these systems must work together. Organs often play specific roles in many systems because of their specific functions. In this chapter we will learn about how systems work together and learn about some important life functions that require the work of many bodies.
The position of an organ in the body is probably what we are most familiar with from our everyday experiences. Many common diseases we hear about — such as stomach pain, broken bones, lung disease, and skin cancer — are named after the organs they affect.
12 Body Systems And Their Functions
An organ consists of tissues that together perform a specific function throughout the body. The parts of organs that perform specific functions are divided into organ systems that perform general functions. Table 1 describes the structures and functions of some common organs.
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Organs consist of organs that together perform a specific function in the entire body. Table 2 describes the organ, its main organs, and its physical functions, which we will explain in the following pages.
Note that we decided to divide the rest of this module into three main categories: “control” operations, “cell maintenance” operations, and “support” operations. It is important to remember that when organs and systems work together, these parts cannot be separated. For example, we included the natural system in the control group because it is involved in controlling the reproductive process and events. However, reproduction is a process of cell renewal as it produces and maintains the original cells used for reproduction. Just remember that these areas will help you structure your learning more than the complex rules of anatomy and physiology.
All of the body’s organs work together to maintain proper body function. Often in anatomy and physiology, including in this chapter, we take a closer look at the body’s molecules, cells, tissues, and organs to learn their form and function. However, it is important to keep in mind that all molecules function as part of the whole body. Endocrine disorders such as diabetes affect the amount of glucose in the body. Changes in blood glucose levels can affect many organs. For example, the immune system may not recover properly, the urinary system may affect the kidneys, and the cardiovascular system may affect the blood vessels, even causing blindness. Everything is connected in the body.
The assignment of organs to organs can be imprecise, as organs that are “operated” by one system may also perform functions with another system. In fact, most organs contribute to more than one body.
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Each organ has a specific function in the body, and each organ is often studied individually. But the organ also works together to help the body maintain balance.
For example, the cardiovascular, urinary, and lymphatic systems help the body manage water balance. The cardiovascular and lymphatic systems transport water throughout the body and help sense solute and water levels and regulate weight. If the water level is too high, the urinary system produces more concentrated urine (urine with a high water content) to help get rid of the excess water. If the hydration level is too low, more urine is produced to conserve hydration.
Likewise, the cardiovascular, cutaneous (skin and associated structures), respiratory, and muscle systems work together to help maintain the body’s internal temperature. If the body temperature rises, blood vessels in the skin expand, allowing more blood to flow closer to the skin. This allows heat to spread through the skin and surrounding air. The skin can also sweat when the body is very hot; When the sweat passes, it helps warm the body. Rapid breathing can also help the body get rid of excess heat. These reactions to increased body temperature explain the cause of sweating, sweating, and flushing during intense exercise. (Heavy breathing during exercise is also one way the body delivers more oxygen to the muscles and removes more carbon dioxide produced by the muscles.)
On the other hand, if your body is too cold, the blood in the skin constricts and blood circulation in the extremities (hands and feet) slows down. Muscles contract and relax rapidly, producing heat to keep warm. Your skin’s hairs are raised, hold more air, are good insulators, and are closer to your skin. These hypothermic reactions explain the feeling of shivering, chills, and pale, cold feet when you have a cold.
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So what happens when you get a fever? This means that your body cannot maintain its balance. For example, would your house be too hot if your air conditioner broke down?
In severe cases, fever can become a medical emergency. But fever is a physiological reaction of our body to adapt to certain antibiotics. Certain chemicals called pyrogens will cause your hypothalamus to change to a higher value. It is best to program your home heating to be higher to save energy on a hot day when you are not home during the day. These pyrogens can come from microorganisms that infect you, or they can be produced by your body’s cells in response to an infection.
Although the evidence is only circumstantial, fever is thought to improve the body’s response. An increase in temperature can disrupt the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses that adapt to thrive at normal body temperature. This gives your immune cells a chance to kill germs before they can reproduce and spread throughout the body. There is also some evidence that increased body temperature slightly alters many physiological processes in a way that the immune system may function well.
Unfortunately, some infections have pyrogen levels in “waves.” Increases and decreases the temperature. As pyrogen levels drop, the other part of fever occurs: the “sweat” and burning sensation. As your pyrogen levels continue to rise and fall, you will feel as if you are oscillating back and forth.
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Your body will continue to fluctuate back and forth between the upper and lower body temperature limits, but it is now within the “normal” range. Heat, you may not notice that your body is still working to maintain homeostasis. This exchange.
Body functions such as regulating heart rate, muscle contraction, enzyme activation, and cellular communication require regulation of blood pressure. We usually get a lot of calcium from food. The small intestine absorbs calcium from fermented foods.
The endocrine system is the main control center that regulates the balance of calcium in the blood. The thyroid and parathyroid glands contain receptors that respond to high levels of calcium in the blood. During this process, the level of calcium in the blood changes because it changes in response to the environment. Changes in blood calcium levels have the following effects:
An imbalance of calcium in the blood can lead to illness or even death. Hypocalcemia means low levels of calcium in the blood. Symptoms of hypocalcemia include muscle cramps and heart failure. Hypercalcemia occurs when the amount of calcium in the blood is higher than normal. Hypercalcemia can also cause heart failure, as well as muscle and kidney failure.
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Choice C is correct. The heart is often affected by large changes in calcium in the short term, while bones are often affected by small changes in calcium in the long term. Improper calcium balance can also affect muscle function and can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
As you can see, calcium levels are very important to maintain balance of the whole body. Calcium ions are used in heartbeat, muscle contraction, enzyme activation and cell communication. The parathyroid and parathyroid glands in the endocrine system detect changes in blood calcium levels. When the parathyroid gland detects low blood calcium levels, some organs change their functions to restore blood calcium levels. The skeletal, urinary, and digestive systems work to achieve this goal through negative feedback.
The release of parathyroid hormone from the endocrine system stimulates bone cells in the skeleton to rebuild bone and release calcium into the blood. Likewise, this hormone causes the kidneys in the urinary system to reabsorb calcium and return it to the blood instead of excreting calcium in the urine. By altering kidney function to produce powerful vitamin D, the small intestine uses food to increase calcium absorption.
When the parathyroid gland detects high levels of calcium in the blood, the skeletal, urinary, and digestive systems help reduce blood calcium levels to normal. The release of calcitonin from the thyroid gland into the endocrine system leads to a number of reactions. Bone cells in the skeleton use excess calcium in the blood to build new bone. In the urinary system, the kidneys excrete more calcium into the urine than they recover through calcium reabsorption. finally,
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